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NATURAL VS. SYNTHETIC ASTAXANTHIN

NATURAL vs. SYNTHETIC ASTAXANTHIN

      The chemical difference between natural and synthetic ASTAXANTHIN lies in the stereochemical orientation of the molecules in space (those different molecules are called “enantiomers”). ASTAXANTHIN exists in three main enantiomeric forms, termed 3S-3’S, 3R-3’S, and 3R-3’R, depending on the spatial orientation of the hydroxyl (OH) groups in chiral carbon number 3 (see Fig.1). Quite simply stated, chirality and stereo differentiation are crucial factors in biological activity because in nature, at a molecular level, asymmetry dominates biological processes, such as enzymatic and most immunological reactions. Chirality is not a prerequisite for bioactivity but in bioactive molecules where one or more chiral centers are present, great differences are usually observed in the activities of the different enantiomers. This is a general phenomenon that applies to many bioactive substances, such as drugs, flavors, fragrances and food additives
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      A recent study showed that farmed salmon, like most of the salmon sold in supermarkets, can be easily distinguished from wild salmon in its ASTAXANTHIN isomers, because farmed salmon are fed synthetic ASTAXANTHIN The pigment in wild salmon is found overwhelmingly in the 3S-3’S enantiomeric form, the same form as that found in Haematococcus. Synthetic ASTAXANTHIN from petrochemical sources contains a mixture of all the enantiomers of ASTAXANTHIN, as a direct result of its chemical synthesis, primarily (~50%) the 3R-3’S enantiomer (the meso form),only ~25% part is 3S-3’S enantiomeric form.. Indeed, in an elegant human study, ísterlie and co-workers found that humans selectively absorb the different isomers and their relative concentrations were found to differ in various organs. It is important to note that nearly all studies showing ASTAXANTHIN's health-beneficial effects in humans were performed on the stereoisomer found in Haematococcus, 3S-3’S. Although the other stereoisomers may not be harmful, no significant biological effect has been established.neither to human nor to salmons.


      Moreover, natural ASTAXANTHIN exists in algae and fish as mono- and di-esters of fatty acids(95%), while synthetic ASTAXANTHIN is produced and sold for salmon farming as (100%)free hydroxy ASTAXANTHIN.

      In nutraceutical applications as well, scientists have proven that one of the main advantages of natural ASTAXANTHIN esters is that the esterified form is inherently more stable than the free form, providing for a significantly longer shelf life without being oxidized. Several recent studies clearly showed the positive effect of ASTAXANTHIN esters mixed with fat formulations on the oral bioavailability of ASTAXANTHIN in humans .So the Price of salmon feeded with Natural astaxanthin is 2-3times of which feeded with synthetic ASTAXANTHIN in market.

      You should adjust natural ASTAXANTHIN dosage in salmon feed . the Astaxanthin concentration in Salmons is 5 (ppm), Our test result is adding Natural astaxanthin 50-100ppm in salmons-feed and  raise it 8-12weeks before harvest ,It is enough. The total Natural astaxanthin dose to a salmon is about 1/3 of Synthetic ASTAXANTHIN.

       The Astaxanthin concentration of our algal powder is average 2.0-2.3% (20000-2300PPM).

 

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